The STEM STARS research and evaluation designs involve an empirical study to illuminate the efficacy of TRAs and enable the project team to test the following hypotheses: training teachers using the STEM STARS model will have a positive effect on the quality of instruction, teacher efficacy, satisfaction, and retention, as well as on middle and secondary students’ science and Mathematics achievement, and attitudes toward science. STEM STARS will accomplish the goal of this application by completing the following specific objectives: create a high quality, rigorous, and clinically-based teacher preparation program for aspiring middle and secondary science teachers; recruit, prepare, employ, and support an increased number of diverse middle and secondary science educators in high-need urban and rural schools; contribute to the knowledge base on the effectiveness of clinically-based science teacher preparation for middle and secondary classrooms in urban and rural schools; and evaluate student attitudes and outcomes towards science.